The District lies in the central part of the State of Meghalaya and is situated between approximately 25 degrees 10′ and 25 degrees 51′ N latitude, and between 90 degrees 44′ and 91 degrees 49′ E longitude. It is bounded on the north-west by Kamrup district of Assam, on the north-east by Ri Bhoi district, on the east by East Khasi Hills district, on the south by Bangladesh and South West Khasi Hills district, the erstwhile Mawkyrwat Civil Sub division, on the west by East Garo and South Garo Hills districts. The district comprises an area of about 3911.22 sq.kms which is about 17 percent of the total area of the state. Nongstoin, covering an area of about 76.00 Sq. Kms, is the Headquarter of the District.
The climate of the district is mildly tropical in the northern and southern foothills, while in the central upland zone, the climate is temperate and places at medium altitude in the northern, western and southern parts of the district, experience sub-tropical climate.
The district is influenced by the South- West monsoon and rainfall is assured during summer, but differs greatly in intensity from area to area within the district. The average rainfall ranges from 1200 mm to 3000 mm per annum.